.NET is a free, cross-platform, open source developer platform for building many different types of applications. With .NET, you can use multiple languages, editors, and libraries to build for web, mobile, desktop, gaming, and IoT.

Popular technologies

ASP.NET is a free web framework for building great websites and web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. You can also create Web APIs and use real-time technologies like Web Sockets. ASP.NET offers three frameworks for creating web applications: Web Forms, ASP.NET MVC, and ASP.NET Web Pages.

ASP.NET Core is a cross-platform, high-performance, open-source framework for building modern, cloud-based, Internet-connected applications. With ASP.NET Core, you can: – Build web apps and services, IoT apps, and mobile backends.
– Use your favorite development tools on Windows, macOS, and Linux.
– Deploy to the cloud or on-premises.
– Run on .NET Core or .NET Framework

3. Azure :
Azure is a comprehensive set of cloud services that developers and IT professionals use to build, deploy and manage applications through our global network of data centers. Integrated tools, DevOps and a marketplace support you in efficiently building anything from simple mobile apps to internet-scale solutions

4. Xamarin :
Build & design a mobile app using Xamarin’s cross-platform development software which simplifies mobile application creation. Xamarin offers a single language – C#, class library, and runtime that works across all three mobile platforms of iOS, Android, and Windows Phone (Windows Phone’s native language is already C#), while still compiling native (non-interpreted) applications that are performant enough even for demanding games.

5. Universal Windows Platform (UWP) :
The Universal Windows Platform (UWP) is the app platform for Windows 10. You can develop apps for UWP with just one API set, one app package, and one store to reach all Windows 10 devices – PC, tablet, phone, Xbox, HoloLens, Surface Hub and more. It’s easier to support a number of screen sizes, and also a variety of interaction models, whether it be touch, mouse and keyboard, a game controller, or a pen. At the core of UWP apps is the idea that users want their experiences to be mobile across ALL their devices, and they want to use whatever device is most convenient or productive for the task at hand.

6. Entity Framework :
Entity Framework (EF) is an object-relational mapper that enables .NET developers to work with relational data using domain-specific objects. It eliminates the need for most of the data-access code that developers usually need to write.

7. Enterprise Library :
The Microsoft Enterprise Library is a collection of reusable software components (application blocks) designed to assist software developers with common enterprise development cross-cutting concerns (such as logging, validation, data access, exception handling, and many others).

8. NUnit :
NUnit is a unit-testing framework for all .Net languages. Initially ported from JUnit, the current production release, version 3, has been completely rewritten with many new features and support for a wide range of .NET platforms.

9. SignalR :
ASP.NET SignalR is a new library for ASP.NET developers that makes developing real-time web functionality easy. SignalR allows bi-directional communication between server and client. Servers can now push content to connected clients instantly as it becomes available.

10. ELMAH :
ELMAH (Error Logging Modules and Handlers) is an application-wide error logging facility that is completely pluggable. It can be dynamically added to a running ASP.NET web application, or even all ASP.NET web applications on a machine, without any need for re-compilation or re-deployment.It includes features like error filtering and the ability to view the error log from a web page, as an RSS feed, or to download it as a comma-delimited file.

.NET Interview Questions

1. What is the use of finalize method in .NET?
The Finalize method is used to perform cleanup operations on unmanaged resources held by the current object before the object is destroyed. The method is protected and therefore is accessible only through this class or through a derived class. This method is automatically called after an object becomes inaccessible, unless the object has been exempted from finalization by a call to GC.SuppressFinalize method. Because garbage collection is non-deterministic, we do not know precisely when the garbage collector performs finalization.

2. What are memory-mapped files?
A memory-mapped file contains the contents of a file in virtual memory. This file can be shared across multiple processes. Processes can map to the same memory-mapped file by using a common name that is assigned by the process that created the file.

3. Explain lazy initialization of an object in .NET.
Lazy initialization of an object means that its creation is deferred until it is first used. It is primarily used to improve performance, avoid wasteful computation, and reduce program memory requirements. The .NET Framework 4.0 introduces a new wrapper class, System.Lazy, for executing the lazy initialization in an application.

4. What is the use of ThreadStaticAttribute class in .NET?
A static field marked with ThreadStaticAttribute is not shared between threads. Each executing thread has a separate instance of the field, and independently sets and gets values for that field. If the field is accessed on a different thread, it will contain a different value.

5. Determine whether an unknown method examined using Reflection is generic or not.
Reflection represents this method by an instance of the MethodInfo class. We can use IsGenericMethod property of MethodInfo class to determine whether the method is generic.

6. What are different session state modes in ASP.NET?
ASP.NET session state supports several different storage options for session data. The following list describes the available session state modes:
a) InProc mode, which stores session state in memory on the Web server. This is the default.
b) StateServer mode, which stores session state in a separate process called the ASP.NET state service.
c) SQLServer mode stores session state in a SQL Server database.
d) Custom mode, which enables you to specify a custom storage provider.
e) Off mode, which disables session state.

7. Explain different types of Authentication in ASP.NET.
ASP.NET, in conjunction with Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), can authenticate user credentials using any of the following authentication methods:
a) Windows: This authentication method uses built-in windows security features to authenticate user. Basic, digest, or Integrated Windows Authentication (NTLM or Kerberos).
b) Forms authentication, in which you create a login page and manage authentication in your application.
c) Client Certificate authentication

8. What is the difference between Response.Redirect and Server.Transfer in ASP.NET?
Response.Redirect specifies to the browser to request a different page. Because a redirect forces a new page request, the browser makes two requests to the Web server, so the Web server handles an extra request. IIS 5.0 introduced a new function, Server.Transfer, which transfers execution to a different ASP page on the server. This avoids the extra request, resulting in better overall system performance, as well as a better user experience

9. What is the importance of T4 in Entity Framework?
T4 stands for Text template transformation toolkit. It is a template-based code generation engine built into Visual Studio that allows generation of C#, T-SQL, XML or any other text files by using ASP.NET – ASPX template like syntax. T4 template has .tt extension.

10. Can you explain lazy loading in Entity Framework? How can we turn off lazy loading for all entities?
Lazy loading is the process whereby an entity or collection of entities is automatically loaded from the database the first time that a property referring to the entity/entities is accessed. Lazy loading can be turned off for all entities in the context by setting LazyLoadingEnabled flag to false on the Configuration property.


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